Bank Lingkungan Inovatif (Innovative Trash Bank): An Innovative Waste Management System to Create Zero Waste and Energy Independent-Village in Cikahuripan Village, Lembang, West Java, Indonesia
Shabrina Nida Al Husna
Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
Wastes are materials that remain from human activity and natural processes which do not have economic value. The continuously increasing number of wastes that is not supported by sufficient infrastructure and facilities management will cause environmental problem. As a result, the generated wastes are not managed properly and lead to negative effects, such as health problems, aesthetics disruption and financial loss. In addition, bad paradigm and shallow knowledge on waste management are also the critical issues. According to Undang-Undang No. 18 tahun 2008 on Waste Management, it is explained that the principle of waste management includes reduce, reuse and recycle (3R). Sadly, the implementation is really contradictive. People generally collect the waste in their homes, burned it, then buried it, or transported it directly to the landfills. Whereas, wastes produced by people generally still contains high economic value after being recovered or treated by people’s creativity and innovation.
Cikahuripan Village is one of the ten villages located in the district of Lembang, West Java, Indonesia. As the area located in the mountains and has an average temperature ranging from 17°-27°C, Cikahuripan Village is definitely an ideal location for a variety of medicinal plants, fruits and vegetables, such as strawberries and tea plantations. The village has interesting tourism objects and provides research objects in various sectors, such as agriculture, plantation, farming, astronomy, geology, and tourism (WisataLembang.Com, 2012). On the other hand, Cikahuripan Village does not have a waste management system and lack of adequate infrastructure of waste management.
Consequently, any waste generated by the people is burned directly and disposed in any places. Whereas, tremendous waste generated from the community activities could becomes a great potential to increase people’s prosperity (welfare). For each month, organic wastes generated from agricultural activities reach 2500 tons, manure products from livestock activity reached 5000 tons, and inorganic wastes from household activities reach 105-210 tons (Sukmana, 2012). Currently, most of the waste generated by the people are burned directly and disposed of in any place. If the waste burning method continues, while in the amount of generate waste increase significantly, it will lead to the negative impacts on the environment and public health.
According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the livestock sector contributes CO2 gas production reached 18%. Rossane Skirble (2007) also stated that the carbon dioxide gas generated from the combustion process will accelerate the process of climate change and global warming, which can reduce agricultural productivity by 5-20%. Since incomplete combustion generates carbon monoxides, it can also pollute the air. As the result, it will have an impact on the health of residents. This gas can also indirectly degrade the quality of local natural resources, the agricultural and livestock products.
There are some solutions that have been done to solve these problems. Some types of waste have been already collected by the people, and then sold to the waste collectors with a very low price. But all of existing solutions are so simple and cannot be running optimally due to the limited knowledge and facilities which community has, such as the method to build an ideal biogas reactor, brand and package products, etc. Based on these problems, there should be a creative, innovative and integrative waste management system to be implemented in the Cikahuripan Village.
Bank Lingkungan Innovatif (Innovative Trash Bank) is a series of waste management activities that subjected waste as potential materials to become useable products and profitable products for the community. Bank Lingkungan Inovatif processes the waste from the collection and segregation to become economic products. This program is an establishment effort to stimulate creativity and to create a good paradigm of waste as a resource of economic value that can still be processed and reused. The innovative point of this program is the continuance program that becomes follow-up of collection and segregation of the waste, including Bank Lingkungan Keliling (Bankeling), Rumah Kreatif (Creative House) and Laboratorium Pengolahan Sampah Organik (Fig.1). Bank Lingkungan Keliling (Bankeling) is a waste transportation services using modified motors, that facilitates community to deposit wastes to the bank. Rumah Kreatif (Creative House) is a center activity of inorganic waste processing into creative products. Laboratorium Pengolahan Sampah Organik (Organic Waste Processing Laboratory) is a center for the processing of organic waste into fertilizer, animal feeds, biogas, and other innovative products. This program named ‘laboratory’ because the products are required a series of studies/research to test the feasibility of the product in industrial use during the implementation.
In addition to Bank Lingkungan Inovatif, skills upgrading and provision of public infrastructure are also becoming important point. Business and management training and construction of a public building as a center for waste management considered necessary. The entire program was conducted to facilitate and assist the society together to solve the problems.
The main objectives of Bank Lingkungan Inovatif are to create Desa Ramah Lingkungan (Zero-Waste Village) and Desa Mandiri Energi (Energy Independent-Village) and to increase villager’s economic impact (Fig. 2). These three objectives refer to the concept of Eco-village in which defined as village development concept aimed to reach rural communities independence but still considering the availability of sustainable resources (Pravita, 2012). The concept of Zero Waste System becomes the main feature of eco-village development where the use of resources will run as effectively as possible, so there is minimum or even no waste. This concept offers an environmental management system that emphasizes on the value of good habits, economic thinking (to produce profitable product), as well as long term programs which lead to the sustainability (Fig. 3) (Atiq and Stephen, 2011). The objective of energy independence based on local resources also refers to the concept of Desa Mandiri Energi launched by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM) of Indonesia. Based on Permen ESDM No. 32 tahun 2008, Desa Mandiri Energi is defined as a city that able to produce New and Renewable Energy to provide a minimum of 60% of the energy needs for the village itself.
The concept of Desa Mandiri Energi is based on local potential of the village, public welfare, and environmental sustainability. Since the observation of the potential environment and its characteristics are very important, therefore there are some things that need to be planned, such as the institutional approach to community development, application of appropriate technology and productive economic development, also for the program monitoring and evaluation (Fitrin, 2010)
To implement the program, it certainly needs strategic steps in order to accelerate achievement of the expected objectives. The strategic steps are including community approach, program mentoring, and program development. The implementation of this program also requires active-participatory involvement given by all of stakeholders, which puts the community as a primary stakeholder. This principle is expressed in the form of community development program which is integrated to the monitoring and evaluation process which can lead to periodical improvement to refine the program in accordance to the expected results. In the realization of these programs also involves contribution of any research students as well as cooperation with the relevant institutions during the process in order to be implemented optimally in the community, thus it would maximize the result. The government’s role is also important both as a fund source for environmental sustainability programs and the easiness of program implementation at the time of the bureaucracy. By doing collaboration of the various elements, it can certainly accelerate achievement of the objectives. After all, the entire series of Bank Lingkungan Innovative program, ultimately expected to make Cikahuripan Village as a rural model in environmental aspect that can become a national and international reference.
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essay for attending the 2nd NIDA Summer Camp on “Green Economy” which will be held from June 18-27, 2013 at NIDA Bangkok Thailand.
Alhamdulillah, I have a chance to go abroad. actually, to enrich knowledge, to get more friends, to give thanks to Allah for everything, everyday and everytime in ma life.. 🙂